Carnivores Pachydermata Ongulates Reptiles Primates, rodents and others Birds Birds of prey Terrestrial birds Waders and water birds
The leopard tortoise (Stigmochelys pardalis) is a large and attractively marked tortoise found in the savannas of eastern and southern Africa, from Sudan to the southern Cape. It is the only member of the genus Stigmochelys, although in the past it was commonly placed in Geochelone. This tortoise is a grazing species that favors semi-arid, thorny to grassland habitats. In both very hot and very cold weather they may dwell in abandoned fox, jackal, or aardvark holes. Leopard tortoises do not dig other than to make nests in which to lay eggs. Given its propensity for grassland habitats, it grazes extensively upon mixed grasses. It also favors succulents and thistles.
Leopard tortoises are herbivorous; their diet consists of a wide variety of plants including forbs, thistles, grasses, and succulents. They will sometimes gnaw on bones or even hyena feces to obtain calcium, necessary for bone development and their eggshells. Seeds will pass undigested through the gut, so the leopard tortoise plays a significant role in seed dispersal. Normally active during the day, they are less active during hot weather or during the dry season.
A very long-lived animal, the leopard tortoise reaches sexual maturity between the ages of 12 and 15 years. During the mating season, males will fight over females, ramming and butting their competitors. They will trail after females for quite some distance, often ramming them into submission. When mating, the male makes grunting vocalizations. Nesting occurs between May and October when the female digs a hole and lays a clutch of 5 to 30 eggs. As many as 5–7 clutches may be laid in a single season. Incubation will take 8–15 months depending on temperature. There are numerous predators of the eggs and hatchlings including monitor lizards, snakes, jackals and crows. Adults have few natural predators but lions and hyenas have occasionally been reported preying on them.
Source : Wikipedia