Mountain reedbuck are the smallest of the three reedbuck species, but can be categorized as medium-sized antelope. Adult males weight about 30 kg. They can be easily confused with Bohor reedbuck. The mountain reedbuck has a grey coat with a white underbelly and reddish-brown head and shoulders. The male has ridged horns of around 15.2 cm, which curve forwards. Both sexes have a dark scent patch beneath the ears.
The mountain reedbuck occurs in three separate geographic areas, each containing a separate subspecies. The southern mountain reedbucks inhabits an area from the eastern Cape Province (South Africa) to southeastern Botswana. Chanler's mountain reedbuck occurs in Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Sudan, and Ethiopia. The Adamawa mountain reedbuck has only been found in Cameroon. The species occupies ridges and hillsides in rocky country and high-altitude grasslands (often with some tree or bush cover), at altitudes of 1,500-5,000 m. Current total population of all subspecies has been estimated at some 36,000 individuals and the species is classified as "endangered" bu IUCN while the specific species that lives in Kenya is classified "vulnerable". Human activities, including settlements, livestock-raising, and poaching are all contributing factors towards the decline of this species. They also have a wide range of predators, include baboons (Papio spp.), martial eagles (Polemaetus bellicosus), cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), leopards (Panthera pardus), striped hyaenas (Hyaena hyaena), and the aforementioned African wild dogs.
Mountain reedbuck are found in mountainous areas of much of Sub-Saharan Africa, favoring cool, rocky terrain. They prefer landscapes with large bushes and scattered trees—which provide shade and help them to evade predators—but move into flat areas to feed and drink. The availability of water is an essential requirement. In Kenya, mountain reedbuck prefer open grassy valleys, and the scrub and grass between slopes covered in camphor. The species is most active during the early morning, late afternoon, and at night. In the middle of the day they tend to lie in the shade, often close together and shielded by bushes.
Mountain reedbuck tolerate a wide range of climatic conditions. Seasonal activity variation isstrongly related to rainfall, with decreasing levels of activity during the rainy season when food is more available. They are predominantly grazers, and selective about their choice of grasses.